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MÉTODOS DE COCÇÃO
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MÉTODOS DE COCÇÃO

São as técnicas utilizadas no preparo de alimentos crus sob a ação do calor. Com a cocção os alimentos tornam-se mais tenros e digeríveis, adquirem sabor partículas e em sua maioria ficam esterilizados.
A prática dos métodos de cocção faz-se de acordo com as regras determinadas, e constituem a essência do trabalho do cozinheiro.

TIPOS

Distinguem-se duas formas básicas de cozinhas alimentos:

*A cocção rápida ou com calor seco.
*A cocção lenta ou com calor úmido.

A cocção rápida ou com calor seco pede ser aplicada a todos os alimentos tenros, em cujas fibras moles é fáceis penetrar o calor. Nos métodos com calor seco, mais que o amolecimento constata-se uma troca de sabor devido à cocção dos sucos dos comestíveis.
Os métodos clássicos de cocção rápida são:

*Assar ao forno;
*Gratinar;
*Assar na chapa ou na grelha;
*Fringir e saltear;
*Fritar.

A cocção lenta ou com calor úmido amolece os alimentos. Nesse procedimento o vapor de água penetra nas fibras e quebra sua consistência. Com a aplicação de cocção lenta os comestíveis perdem parte do sabor e de seu valor nutritivo. Normalmente as substâncias aromáticas contidas nos alimentos passam para o líquido.
Os métodos de cocção lenta são:

*Cozer em água ou vapor;
*Estufar, brasear, guisar

Além das cocções clássicas acima, existem os meios modernos. Os meios modernos geralmente são ultra-rápidos. Os dois métodos mais usados atualmente são:

*Cocção por micro-ondas;
*Fritura a pressão.

CARACTERÍSTICAS ESPECÍFICAS

Os métodos de cocção escolhem-se de acordo com a propriedade dos comestíveis utilizados.
- Assar ao forno: é um método de cocção com calor seco. No forno os alimentos se assam mediante a aplicação de ar quente. Distinguem-se três modalidades de assar ao forno (cada uma para cada tipo de alimento):

o Assar ao forno alimentos frescos (carnes, aves, legumes, frutas)
o Fornear massas batidas (espumosas)
o Fornear massas (pães, massas frescas, etc.)

- Assar ao forno alimentos frescos: é utilizado com carnes, aves, legumes e outros produtos crus ou branqueados. O ar quente e as gorduras (caso sejam utilizadas) agem sobre o alimento formando inicialmente uma crosta sobre toda a superfície do alimento. À medida que se continua aplicando calor, este penetra até o núcleo do alimento reforçando a crosta externa. O alimento estará comestível quando o calor alcançar o centro da peça. Durante a cocção o suco do alimento se clarifica e se expande por causo do calor; a crosta evita que o suco saia do alimento.
Para que o alimento adquira uma cor dourada é necessário untá-lo com gordura ou começar a cocção em um forno bem quente.
Obs.: é muito importante não furar a crosta do alimento durante a cocção para que o suco não extravase. Não cortar o alimento de imediato, deixá-lo descansar por alguns instantes até que o suco perca a pressão.

- Fornear massas, como as folhadas, brioche, bombas e similares: consiste em cozer o alimento em uma temperatura pré-determinado e já aquecido. Nesse procedimento pode-se ou não querer que forme a crosta no alimento.
Cada massa necessita de uma temperatura determinada para cozimento. De importância determinante nesse método é o vapor que se acumula dentro do forno. O vapor produz expansão e aumento de volume do alimento.

- Gratinar: é um processo semelhante ao fornear, diferenciando-se apenas pelo fato que o calor fornecido é de cima para baixo e normalmente é transmitido por irradiação de um metal.
Geralmente os alimentos a serem gratinados estão já quase ou totalmente cozidos.
Os alimentos a gratinar podem ser distinguidos em três modalidades de cocção:

o Gratinar completo: é um processo de cocção no qual o alimento é submetido ao calor até o seu cozimento uniforme por dentro e por fora. os alimentos a serem feitos dessa forma devem possuir muito suco, para que ao invés de secar-se, cozinhem-se.
o Gratinar ligeiro ou tostar: consiste em obter uma crosta sobre o alimento. Os alimentos feitos dessa forma devem estar cozidos.
o Glacear ou abrilhantar: é uma operação no qual se introduz o alimento por breve tempo, afim e dar-lhe brilho, os alimentos que se glaceam são recobertos de molho e manteiga derretida.

- Saltear ou fringir na frigideira ou na chapa: entende-se por saltear ou fringir o procedimento de cozer alimentos em gordura muito quente. Durante este procedimento, os poros dos alimentos, ao contacto com a gordura, contraem-se e se fecham de imediato, conservando-se o suco dentro do próprio alimento. A cocção demasiada e a demora no serviço imediato (deixando o alimento descansar) endurecem o alimento.

- Assar na chapa ou na grelha: muito parecido com o assar no forno. A diferença consiste no fato de quando se assa na chapa o calor sobre o alimento deriva de ar quente (fogo direto e irradiação). A função da gordura é apenas evitar que o alimento se prenda na chapa.

- Fritar em banho: consiste em preparar o alimento, deixando-os nadar em grande quantidade de gordura quente. O contacto com o alimento com a gordura evita a saída do suco do próprio alimento, que fica assim recoberto de uma leve crosta. Para evitar que a gordura penetre demais no dentro do alimento.
Empanam-se os alimentos que não resistiria ao contato com a gordura, tais como: carnes, aves, peixes, alimentos branqueados em água. Existem três métodos de empanar um alimento que são:

o Empanar: (à vienense e à milanesa) consiste em passar o alimento na farinha de trigo, ovo, farinha de rosca e eventualmente queijo parmesão ralado.
o Recobrir: (à la Orly) cobre-se com massa para fritar feita de farinha de trigo, ovos e líquido (água, leite, vinho, cerveja, etc.).
o À Inglesa: empana-se com farinha de trigo, regando-o o alimento com uma mistura de leite e ovo e finalmente passando-o na farinha de pão fresco.

- Cozer em água: assim se chama o método de cocção nos qual o calor é transmitido por água quente ou vapor de água (lembrando que a temperatura máxima nesse processo é de 100ºc que é a temperatura de ebulição da água). Dividem-se de três maneiras:

o Cozer ou ferver: consiste em cozinhar os alimentos até o ponto de cocção mediante aplicação direta do calor através de um líquido em ebulição.
O calor da água não é suficientemente alto para formação de crosta no alimento e, por conseguinte a água penetra nos poros do alimento guisando-os.
o Escalfar: os alimentos escalfados não chegam nunca a ferver, sendo que se guisam até o ponto de ebulição, ou seja, na temperatura mais alta da água sem chagar a ferver.
A água para escalfar geralmente são adicionados vinagre e outros condimentos ( à exceção do sal), que ajudam a manter unidas as proteínas e dão sabor ao alimento. Se o alimento requer sal como tempero, deve ser posto na água em pequenas quantidades, ou então no final da cocção.
A arte de escalfar alimentos consiste em manter a temperatura da água no ponto apropriado, se a água é fria demais as proteínas se dissolvem e o alimento fica aguado. Se deixar ferver, as proteínas se dilatam, separando-se do alimento e o mesmo se desfaz. E se deixar ferver, as proteínas se dilatam, separando-se do alimento e o mesmo se desfaz.
o Cozer a vapor: consiste em submeter o alimento ao vapor de água, que penetra no alimento, de fora até o núcleo. Esse método tem como características de não destruir as células. O calor somente derrete a gordura contida no alimento.

- Estufar, brasear, guisar: quando a cocção se realiza em duas etapas. O alimento se cozinha no calor seco, e termina de cozinha em calor úmido. Este é um método de cocção lenta que se aplica principalmente a carnes, aves e legumes.

o Estufar: é o procedimento no qual se coloca muito líquido na cocção. Este líquido, geralmente um fundo composto de gordura, água e substâncias aromáticas, penetra no alimento e o cozinha, depois de salteado, como na cocção com água.
o Brasear: consiste em cozer o alimento parcialmente num fundo e parcialmente no vapor de água, produzido por este, depois de dourado. O braseado aplica-se especialmente a peças grandes de carne que se cozem em recipientes semi-herméticos ao forno.
o Guisar: é um processo misto de ferver em água e estufar.

- Fritura à pressão: é o processo misto de fringir em banho de gordura e cozer ao vapor. Os alimentos se cozem numa frigideira fechada. Como conseqüência o vapor de água produzido pela cocção age como transmissor de calor.
Fonte(s):
http://jeanphillipe.multiply.com/journal…

 

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